Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

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Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 1:13 am

Mga sir share ko lang ung mga reviewer na ito....share nyo din kung mayron din kayo...thnx!

ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS
compiled & edited by Arch. Jenaro A. Villamor, uap
Definitions of ACOUSTICS:
1. branch of physics concerned with sound
2. deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound
Almost all acoustical situations are described in 3 parts (elements):
1. Sound Source ( e.g. human speech, HVAC equipment)
2. Transmission Path (e.g. air, earth, building materials)
3. Receiver (e.g. humans, animals, sensitive medical equipment)
ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS
1. technology of designing spaces, structures and mechanical systems to meet hearing needs
2. effect of building design on the control of sound in buildings
3 Aspects of Acoustical Design in Buildings
1. Planning to keep noise sources as far as possible from quiet area
2. Internal acoustics of rooms
3. Structural precautions to reduce noise penetrations
Essential Elements of Architectural Acoustics:
1. Room Acoustics – the qualities or characteristics of a room, auditorium, or concert hall that determine the audibility of speech or fidelity of musical sound in it
• Cubic volume (and coupled spaces)
• Shape and proportion (length-to-width, height-to-width)
• Finishes (selection and placement)
• Audience layout ( floor slope, speaker-to-listener distances)
• Special treatment ( suspended reflectors, resonant absorbers, quadratic-residue diffusers)
2. Sound Isolation – the use of building materials and construction assemblies designed to reduce the transmission of airborne and structure-borne sound from one room to another or from the exterior to the interior of a building (Sound Insulation)
• Site noise characteristics (sound level, character, duration)
• Outdoor barriers, nearby buildings, vegetation, and earth berms
• Location of activities within buildings (zoning, buffer spaces)
• Background noise criteria (HVAC system, electronic)
3. Mechanical system noise and vibrations
• Equipment noise characteristics
• Location of mechanical equipment
• Vibration isolation ( springs, pads)
• Air duct and pipe treatment ( linings, mufflers, laggings)
• Background noise from air outlets (coordination with sound isolation)
4. Electronic sound systems
• System compatibility with room acoustics
• Loudspeaker selection, placement and orientation
• System components and controls
• Background masking (loudspeaker layout, sound spectra)

Definitions of SOUND 2
1. physical wave in an elastic medium, usually air
2. the sensation stimulated in the organs of hearing by mechanical radiant energy transmitted as longitudinal pressure waves through the air or other medium
3. a vibration in an elastic medium such as air, water, most building materials, and the earth
4. physically, sound is a rapid fluctuation of air pressure
Types of Sound
1. Wanted Sound (speech, music) – heard properly
o considered desirable
o heard properly
2. Unwanted Sound (noise) – annoyance
o annoyance
o not desired or objectionable
Characteristics of Sound
1. Audible
2. Inaudible
Basic Principles of Sound - understanding the characteristics of sound is essential in designing for good acoustics)
1. Generation
o sound is generated when an object vibrates, causing the adjacent air to move, resulting in a series of pressure waves radiating out from the moving object
o Wave – a disturbance or oscillation that transfers energy progressively from point to point in a medium or space without advance by the points themselves, as in the transmission of sound or light
o Sound Wave – a longitudinal pressure wave in air or an elastic medium esp. one producing an audible sensation
2. Frequency
o the no. of times the cycle of compression and rarefaction of air occurs in a given unit of time (e.g. 1000 cycles in the period of 1 second = 1000 cps = 1000 Hertz)
o the no. of cycles per unit time of a wave or oscillation
o the no. of complete cycles per second (frequency of vibration)
o the rate of oscillation of molecules by sound (frequency of vibration) measured in cycles per second (Hertz)
o Pitch – frequency of sound vibration; the predominant frequency of a sound as perceived by the human ear
o Vibration – the back and forth motion of a complete cycle
o Cycle – full circuit by a displaced particle
o Period – the time required for one complete cycle
o 20 – 20,000 Hz – approx. audio frequency range of human hearing;
o 600 – 40,000 Hz – critical frequency for speech communication
o Tone – composed of a fundamental frequency with multiples of the fundamental, called Harmonics
o Pure Tone – sound composed only of 1 frequency
o Musical sounds are combination of many pure tones
o Frequency bands – used to express division of sounds into sections (Octave bands are the most common)
o 9 Octave Bands – 31.5, 63, 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 Hz
3
3. Velocity
o varies according to the medium of transmission; approx. 1100 fps in air at normal temperature and pressure
4. Wavelength
o Distance between similar points on successive waves; the distance the sound travels in one cycle
o Relationship between wavelength, frequency, and velocity:
Λ = c/f
Λ = wavelength, ft.2
c = velocity of sound, fps
f = frequency of sound, Hz (cps)
o Low frequency sounds: characterized by long wavelengths
o High frequency sounds: characterized by short wavelengths
o Sounds with wavelengths ranging from ½” – 50’ can be heard by humans
5. Magnitude
o Sound power (watts) – amount of energy produced by a source
o Intensity – describes the energy level; unit is watts/cm2
o Loudness (what is perceived) – related to the Intensity Level (IL) or Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
o The Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is equivalent to the Sound Intensity Level (IL)
o Intensity Level is expressed in decibels
o Decibel – dimensionless unit used to express the ratio of two numerical values of a logarithmic scale
Comparison of decimal, exponential, and logarithmic statements of various acoustic intensities
Intensity (watts/cm2) Intensity Level
Decimal Notation Exponential Notation Logarithmic Notation Examples
0.001 10-3 130 dB Painful
0.0001 10-4 120 dB
0.00001 10-5 110 dB 75-piece orchestra
0.000001 10-6 100 dB
0.0000001 10-7 90 dB Shouting at 5 ft.
0.000000001 10-9 70 dB Speech at 3ft.
0.00000000001 10-11 50 dB Average office
0.0000000000001 10-13 30 dB Quiet unoccupied office
0.00000000000001 10-14 20 dB Rural ambient
0.000000000000001 10-15 10 dB
0.0000000000000001 10-16 0 dB Threshold of hearing

o The fundamental relationship that determines the decibel level is ten times the logarithm to the base 10 of the numerical ratio of the two intensities. For example:
IL = 10 log I
I0
IL = intensity level
I = intensity, watts/cm2
I0 = reference intensity, 10-16 watts/cm2
4
6. Time Characteristics of Sound
o Some sounds remain constant with time (e.g. fan may produce a sound with constant frequency and intensity characteristics – a steady state sound)
o Sounds (traffic, voices, musical instruments) vary as a function of time
o Vehicular traffic sounds: maximum levels/levels exceeded for 90% of the time
o Speech sounds: 1% peaks
o Orchestra’s sound: long-term average levels
Behavior of Sound in a Free Field
• Sound intensity is reduced to one-quarter each time the distance doubles:

I1 and I2 are the intensities at distances d1 and d2 from the source
• The intensity of a sound at a distance from the source is expressed as the power (P) of the source divided by the area over which it has spread (A)
I = P/A
• If the sound radiates freely in all directions from a source the area is a sphere. The intensity is represented as:
I = P
4π r2
P = power in watts
r = distance from source in cm
In English units, the conversion factor is 930 cm2/ft4π r2Using this, the equation for spherical direction is:
I = P/930 x 4π r2
As the intensity is reduced to one-quarter with each doubling of distance, the sound pressure level (IL) is reduced by 6 dB. Quartering the intensity reduced the intensity level by 6 dB
• Sound attenuation is due to distance, absorption, or barriers
• Barriers, to be effective must be solid, quite large as compared to the wavelength of sound and near to the source or receiver
• Shrubs, hedges, small groves: visual barriers only; no value acoustically
• Sound Combining. Sounds from separate sources may combine. Two violins produce a louder sound than 1 instrument; 3 violins are louder still. Decibels are not added directly to make the perceived level twice as loud for 2 sources or 3 times as loud for 3. The level for combined sources is determined by adding powers, intensities or pressures; and subsequently converting to decibels. Doubling of intensities results in a 3 dB increase (e.g. 50 dB plus 50 dB is 53 dB, not 100 dB)

5
ROOM ACOUSTICS
Sound Indoors – Acoustics of Room
• Sound in an enclosure radiates out from the source until it hits a surface that reflects or absorbs it
• If the source is continuous, a state of equilibrium will be reached
• Levels are constant throughout most spaces except at points very near the source (for a given source, the built-up or reverberant levels will be highest in a space with a few absorptive surfaces – lobby with marble walls/floors; in a space with large areas of sound absorbing materials, the levels will be lowest
1. Sound Absorption
• Materials varying sound absorption characteristics
 Some absorb low frequency energy
 Some absorb high frequency energy
 Others absorb energy equally over a broad spectrum
• Mechanism of Absorption: 3 families of devices for sound absorption; all types absorb sound by changing sound energy to heat energy
 Fibrous materials (Porous materials): absorption provided by a specific material depends on thickness, density, porosity, resistance to air flow (e.g. materials must be thick to absorb low frequency sounds effectively; suspending an acoustical ceiling tile a foot below the structure results in better broad band absorption than cementing the tile directly to the structure; “acoustic” paints with sand or walnut shells are useless as sound absorbers
 Panel resonators: built with a membrane (thin plywood, linoleum in front of a sealed airspace); panel is set in motion by the alternating pressure of the impinging sound wave; sound energy is converted into heat through internal viscous damping; used where efficient low frequency absorption is required/ mid and high frequency absorption is unwanted; used in recording studios
 Volume resonators
• Coefficient of Absorption (α): Knowing the amount of absorption at different frequencies for each material in a room is essential in designing the room acoustics
 The absorption coefficient is the fraction of incident energy that is absorbed by a surface expressed as
α = Ia
Ii
Ii = incident energy, watts/cm2
Ia= absorbed energy, watts/cm2
α = absorption coefficient (no units)
 Total absorption (A) provided by a surface (S) is expressed in sabins
A = Sα
A = Total absorption, sabins
S = Surface area, sq ft
α = Coefficient of absorption

6
Coefficients of General Building Materials and Furnishings
Coefficients for absorption in auditorium is shown for both empty and occupied seating conditions


• Many products are prefabricated for sound absorbing treatment (suspended ceilings/wall mounted treatments
• 3 kinds of custom-designed treatments that are often used in auditoriums/churches (the deep air space insures adequate low frequency performance


2. Noise Reduction by Absorption
• Noise levels in a room are highest for a given source if the room’s surfaces are primarily sound reflecting; lowest if there are large areas of sound absorbing materials (e.g. sound absorbing ceilings
3. Reflections
4. Reverberation
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by Stryker on Fri May 29, 2009 1:18 am

sir laki tulong neto a... malapit n exam ! salamat s pag share...! 2thumbsup
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jhames joe albert infante on Fri May 29, 2009 1:20 am

hahahaha tndi mo ah dito mo pa pnost sir!hhe baka mali..
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 1:23 am

Electrical Notes:
COULUMB (C)
- The SI unit of electric charge equal to the quantity of electricity transferred along the conductor by a current of one ampere in one second

WATT (W)
- the SI unit equal to one joule per second or to the power represented by a current of one ampere flowing across a potential difference of one volt
W= V x A

WATTAGE
- an amount of power especially the power required to operate an electrical device or appliance, expressed in watts

KILOWATT (kW)
- a unit of power equal to 1,000 watts

KILOWATT-HOUR (kWh)
- a unit of energy transferred or expanded by one kilowatt in one hour a common unit of electric power consumption

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (emf)
- the energy per unit charge available for conversion from a chemical, mechanical or other form of energy into electrical energy or vice versa in a conversion devise as a battery, generator or a motor

POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
- the voltage difference between two points that represents the work involved in the transfer of a unit charge from one point to the other

POTENTIAL
- the work required to move a unit charge from a reference point to a designed point

VOLTAGE
- potential difference or electromotive force expressed in volts: analogous to pressure in water flow

VOLT (V)
- the SI unit of potential difference and electromotive force, defined as the difference of electric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere, when the power dissipated between the points is equal to one watt

CURRENT
- the rate of flow of electric charge in a circuit per unit time measured in amperes

AMPERE (A)
- the basic SI unit of electric current, equivalent to a flow of one coulomb per second or to the steady current produced by one volt applied to one resistance of one ohm

AMPERAGE
- the strength of an electric current measured or expressed in amperes: analogous to the rate of water flow

RESISTANCE (R)
- the opposition of a conductor to the flow of current, causing some of the electric energy to be transformed into heat and usually measured in ohms
OHM
- the SI unit of electrical resistance, equal to the resistance of a conductor in which a potential difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere

OHM’S LAW
- that law that for any circuit the electric current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance
I= V/R

JOULE’S LAW
- the principle that the rate of production of heat by direct current is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the square of the current

RESISTIVITY
- the resistance per unit length of a substance with a cross sectional area. Also called specific resistance

CONDUCTIVITY
- a measure of the ability of a substance to conduct electric current, equal to the reciprocal of the resistivity of the substance. Also called specific conductance

CIRCUIT
- the complete path of an electric current including the source of electric energy

SERIES
- an arrangement of components in an electric circuit in which the same current flows through each component in turn without branching

PARALLEL
- the arrangement of components in an electric circuit in which all positive terminals are connected to a second conductor, the same voltage being applied to each component

BATTERY
- a group of two or more cells connected together to produce electric current

CELL
- a device for converting chemical into electric energy usually consisting of a receptacle with electrodes in an electrolyte. Also called electric cell

ELECTROLYTE
- a non metallic conducting medium in which current is carried by the movement of ions

ELECTRODE
- a conductor through which a current enters or leaves a non metallic medium

ANODE
- the negative terminal of a primary cell or storage battery

CATHODE
- the positive terminal of a primary cell or storage battery

GENERATOR
- a machine that converts mechanical energy into electric energy

ALTERNATOR - a generator for producing alternating current
ELECTRIC MOTOR
- a machine that converts electric power into mechanical energy

ARMATURE
-the main current-carrying winding of a motor or generator in which electromotive force is induced

DIRECT CURRENT (DC)
- an electric current in one direction only having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly

ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)
- an electric current that reverses direction at regularly recurring intervals, having a magnitude that varies in a sinusoidal manner

VOLT AMPERE (VA)
- a unit of electric measurement equal to the product of one volt and one ampere, equivalent to one watt for direct current system and a unit of apparent power for alternating current systems

TRANSFORMER
- an electric device consisting of two or more winding wound on the same core, which employs the principle of mutual induction to convert variations of alternating current in a primary circuit into variations of voltage and current in a secondary circuit

STEP-UP TRANSFORMER
- a transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than in the secondary, serving to transform low voltage to high voltage

STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMER
- a transfer having a greater number of turns in the primary winding than in the secondary, serving to transform high voltage to low voltage

LINE VOLTAGE
- the voltage supplied by a power line, measured at the point of use

SERVICE CONDUCTOR
- any of several conductors extending from a main power line or transformer to the service equipment of a building

SERVICE
- the supply of utilities, as water, gas and electricity, required or demanded by the public

HIGH VOLATGE
- operated on power by or transmitting high voltage

SUBSTATION
- an auxiliary power station where electrical current is converted, as from DC to AC or where voltage is stepped up or down

SERVICE DROP
- the overhead portion of service conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a building

SERVICE LATERAL
- the underground portion of service conductors extending from a main power line or transformer to a building

LINE DROP
- the decrease in voltage between two points on a power line, usually caused by resistance or leakage along the line

SERVICE ENTRANCE CONDUCTOR
- the portion of a service conductor extending from a service drop or service lateral to the service equipment of a building

WATT- HOUR METER
- a meter for measuring and recording the quality of electric power consumed with respect to time

TRANSFORMER VAULT
- a fire-rated room housing a transformer and auxiliary equipment for a large building, usually located on grade or below ground and ventilated directly to the outside air

SWITCHGEAR ROOM - a room containing the service equipment for a large building

SERVICE EQUIPMENT
- the equipment necessary for controlling, metering, and protecting the electric power supply to a building, located near the entrance of the service conductors and usually consisting of a main disconnect switch and secondary switch, fuses and circuit breakers

STANDBY GENERATOR
- a generator for providing emergency power during a power outage. Also called emergency generator

UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
- an emergency system designed to provide power automatically and instantaneously upon failure of the normal power supply

SWITCHBOARD
- one or a group of panels on which are mounted switches, over current devices, metering instruments, and buses for controlling and protecting a number of electric circuits called switchgear

UNIT SUBSTATION
- a free standing enclosure housing a disconnect switch, a step-down transformer and switchgear for a number of electric circuit

FEEDER
- any of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various distribution points in a building

WIRE
- a pliable metallic strand or twisted or woven assembly of such strands often insulated with a dielectric material and used as a conductor of electricity

CONDUCTOR - a substance, body or devise that conducts heat, sound or electricity

INSULATOR
- a material that is poor conductor of electricity used in operating or supporting conductors to prevent the undesired flow of current

CABLE - a single insulated conductor or a bound or sheathed combination of conductors insulated from one another

ARMORED CABLE
- electric cable consisting of two or more insulated conductors protected by flexible, helically wound metal wrapping. Also called BX

MINERAL ISULATED CABLE
- electric cable consisting of a tubular copper sheath containing one or more conductors embedded in a highly compressed, insulating refractory mineral

NON- METALLIC SHEATED CABLE
- electric cable consisting of two or more insulated conductors enclosed in a non- metallic, moisture resistant, flame retardant sheath. Also called ROMEX

COAXIAL CABLE
- a cable for transmitting high frequency telephone, digital or television signals consisting of an insulated conducting core

SHIELDED CABLE - an electric cable enclosed within a metallic sheath in order to reduce the effects of external electric or magnetic fields

CONDUIT - a tube, pipe or duct for enclosing and protecting electric wires or cable

RIGID METAL CONDUIT
- heavy-walled, tubular steel conduits joined by screwing directly into a threaded hub with locknuts and bushings

ELECTRICAL METAL TUBING (EMT)
- thin-walled, tubular steel conduit joined by compression or setscrew couplings

FLEXIBLE METAL CONDUIT
- flexible, helically wound metal conduit, used for connections to motors or other vibrating equipment. Also called Greenfield conduit

RACEWAY - a channel expressly designed to hold and protect electric wires and cables

SURFACE RACEWAY - a raceway designed to exposed installation in dry, non-hazardous, corrosive locations

MULTI- OUTLET ASSEMBLY - a surface mounted raceway designed to house the electrical wires for a circuit and a series of receptacles

DUCT - an enclosed runway for housing conductors or cables

BUS DUCT - a rigid metal housing for a group of buses insulted from each other and the enclosure. Also called busway

CABLE TRAY - an open metal framework for supporting insulated electrical conductors

BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE
- the minimum applied voltage at which a given insulator breaks down and permits current to pass

DIELECTRIC STRENGTH - the maximum voltage that can be applied to a given material without causing it to breakdown, usually expressed in volts or kilovolts per unit of thickness

DIELECTRIC - a non-conducting substance

JUNCTION BOX
- an enclosure for housing and protecting electric wires or cables that are joined together in connecting or branching electric circuits

KNOCKOUT - a panel in a casing or box that can readily be removed, as by punching, hammering or cutting to provide an opening into the interior

GROMMET - a rubber or plastic washer inserted in a hole in a metal part to prevent grounding of a wire passing through the hole

BUSHING - an insulating and protective lining for one or more conductors passing through a hole

UTILITY BOX - for lighting outlet and convenience outlet

PULL BOX - to facilitate pulling

OUTLET BOX - where cable ends

CUT OUT BOX - metal box with hinge & enclosure. House or fuse box

INSULATOR - used as supports and for additional protection for wires

GENERAL WIRING

RHW Moisture and heat resistance rubber Dry and wet locations
T Thermoplastic Dry locations
TW Moisture resistant thermoplastic Dry and wet locations
THHN Heat resistant thermoplastic Dry locations
THW Moisture & heat resistant thermoplastic Dry and wet locations
THWN Moisture & heat resistant thermoplastic Dry and wet locations
XHHW Moisture & heat resistant cross linked Dry and wet locations
SA Silicone asbestos Dry locations
AVA Asbestos and varnished cambric Dry locations only

CONDUIT FITTINGS:

1. elbow (long sweep)
2. tee
a. LB Condulets (angle & bended)
b. LR (angle to the right)
c. TF (tee front)

CONDUITS:

1. RIGID CONDUITS- cannot be bended
metal- RSC/ EMT
non-metal- PVC

2. FLEXIBLE
metal- BX
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 1:44 am

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6541

AN ACT TO ORDAIN AND INSTITUTE
A NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6541

AN ACT TO ORDAIN AND INSTITUTE
A NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

TITLE 1 - ADMINISTRATIVE
Chapter 1.01 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
SECTION 1.01.01: Title

(a) This Act shall be known as the "National Building Code of the Philippines" and shall hereinafter be referred to as the "Code".

SECTION 1.01.02: Declaration of Policy

(a) It is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to safeguard life, health, property, and public welfare, consistent with the principles of environmental management and control; and to this end, make it the purpose of this Code to provide for all buildings and structured, a framework of minimum standards and requirements by guiding, regulating, and controlling their location, siting, design, quality of materials, construction, use, occupancy, and maintenance, including their environment, utilities, fixtures, equipment, and mechanical electrical, and other systems and installations.

SECTION 1.01.03: Scope

(a) The provisions of this Code shall apply to the design, location, siting, construction, alteration, repair, conversion, use, occupancy, maintenance, moving, and demolition of, and addition to, public and private buildings and structures.

(b) Additions, alterations, repairs, and changes of use or occupancy in all buildings and structures shall comply with requirements for new buildings and structures except as otherwise herein provided. Only such portion or portions of the existing building or structure which have to be altered to effect the addition, alteration, or repair shall be made to conform to the requirements for new buildings or structures. Alterations should preserve the aesthetic value of the building to be altered.

(c) Where, in any specific case, different section of this Code specify different materials, methods of construction, or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.

SECTION 1.01.04: Application

(a) This Code shall apply to all buildings and structures constructed and any change or repair made thereon after the approval of said Code. Buildings or structures constructed before the approval of this Code shall not be affected thereby; Except, where their continued use or occupancy is dangerous to life or limb; or where alterations, additions, conversions, or repairs are to be made thereon, this Code shall apply only to such portions of the buildings or structure which have to be altered in order to effect such damages or repairs.

(b) This Code shall apply to chartered cities, poblaciones of municipalities and municipal districts with a population of at least two thousand (2,000) inhabitants, and to barrios of urban areas with a population of at least two thousand (2,000) inhabitants. This Code shall also apply to any area where there are fifty (50) or more families per hectare.

(c) This Code shall likewise apply to any area proposed for or being developed into a new town site, residential subdivision, commercial or residential site, school site, housing project, and similar construction projects where five or more buildings not covered by paragraph (d) of this Section will be constructed even if the poblacion or barrio population is less than two thousand (2,000) or the density of population is less than fifty (50) families per hectare.

(d) The design and construction requirements of this Code shall not apply to any traditional indigenous family dwelling costing not more than five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) and intended for use and occupancy of the family of the owner only. The traditional type of family dwellings are those that are constructed of native materials such as bamboo, nipa, logs, or lumber, wherein the distance between vertical supports or suportales does not exceed 3.00 meters (10 feet); and if masonry walls or socalos are used, such shall not be more than 1.00 meter (3 feet, 3 inches) from the ground: Provided, however, That such traditional indigenous family dwelling will not constitute a danger to life or limb of its occupants or of the public; will not be fire hazard or an eyesore to the community; and does not contravene any fire zoning regulation of the city or municipality in which it is located.

(e) Notwithstanding paragraph (d) of this Section, this Code shall apply to Group A dwellings produced on a commercial scale and intended for use by the general public.

SECTION 1.01.05 Building Use Affecting Public Health and Safety

(a) Any building or structure, or any ancillary or accessory facility thereto, and any alteration or addition to any building or structure already existing, shall conform in all respects to the principles of safe construction, shall be suited to the purpose for which the building is designed, and shall, in no case contribute to making the community in which it is located at eyesore, a slum, or a blighted area.

(b) Adequate environmental safeguards shall be observed in the design, construction, and use of any building or structure for the manufacture and production of any kind of article or product which constitutes a hazard or nuisance affecting public health and safety, such as explosives, gas, noxious chemicals, inflammable compounds, or the like.

SECTION 1.01.06: Maintenance

(a) All buildings or structures, both existing and new, and all parts thereof shall be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. All devices or safeguards, which are required by this Code in a building or structure when constructed, altered, or repaired, shall be maintained on good working order.

SECTION 1.01.07: Insanitary, Unsafe, Hazardous, or Dangerous Sites

(a) The land or site upon which will be constructed any building or structure, or any ancillary or auxillary facility thereto, shall be sanitary , hygienic or safe. Where the land or site is polluted, insanitary, unhygienic, unsafe, or hazardous, conditions contributing to or causing its being polluted, insanitary, unhygienic, unsafe, or hazardous shall be reasonably improved or corrected, or proper remedial measures shall be prescribed or incorporated in the design or construction of the building or structure in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

(b) The land or site upon which be constructed a building of structure or any ancillary or accessory facility thereto, for use of human habitation or abode, shall be at a safe distance from streamers or bodies of water and/source of air considered to be polluted, volcano or volcanic site, and building or structure considered to be a potential source of fire or explosion, such as ammunitions factory or dump and storage place for highly inflammable material.

SECTION 1.01.08: Dangerous and Ruinous Buildings or Structures

(a) General. - The provisions of this Code shall apply to all dangerous buildings, as herein defined, which are now in existence or which may hereafter be constructed, as well as to ruinous buildings as defined in Article 482 of the Civil Code of the Philippines.

(b) Dangerous Buildings Defined. - Dangerous buildings are those which are structurally unsafe or not provided with safe egrees, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life, or which in relation to existing use constitute a hazard to safety or health or public welfare, by reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsolescence, fire hazard, or abandonment; or which otherwise contribute to the pollution of the site or the community to an intolerable degree. Any building or structure which has any or all of the conditions or defects hereinafter described, or conditions or defects similar thereto, shall be deemed to be dangerous building: Provided, That such conditions or defect exists to the extent that the life, health, property, or safety of the public or its occupant are endangered:

(1) Whenever any door, aisle, passageway, stairway, or other means of exist is not of sufficient width or size, or is not so arranged as to provide safe and adequate means of exit in case of fire or panic;

(2) Whenever the stress in any materials member or portion thereof, due to all dead and live loads is more than one and one-half times the working stresses or stresses allowed in this Code for new building of similar structure, purpose, or location: Provided, That in determining working stress, the working stress method of analysis shall be used, and in the case of engineering "overstress", the ultimate strength method;

(3) Whenever any portion thereof has been damaged by fire, earthquake, wind, flood, or by any other cause, to such an extent that the structural strength or the stability thereof is materially less than it was before such catastrophe and is less than the minimum requirements of this Code for new buildings of similar structures, purpose, or location;

(4) Whenever any portion or member or appurtenance thereof is likely to fall, or to become detached or dislodged, or to collapse and thereby injure persons or damage property;

(5) Whenever any portion or member or any appurtenance or ornamentation of the exterior thereof is not of such sufficient strength or stability, or is not so anchored, attached, or fastened - place so as to be capable of resisting a wind pressure of one-half of that specified in this Code for new buildings of similar structure; purpose, or location without exceeding the working stresses permitted for such buildings;

(6) Whenever any portion thereon has wracked, warped, buckled, or settled to such an extent that walls or other structural portions have materially less resistance to winds or earthquake than is required in the case similar new construction;

(7) Whenever the building or structure, or any portion thereof, because of: (i) dilapidation, deterioration, or delay; (ii) faulty construction; (iii) the removal, movement, or instability of any portion of the ground necessary for the purpose of supporting such building; (iv) the deterioration, decay, or inadequacy of its foundation; or (v) any other cause, is likely to partially or completely collapse;

(8) Whenever, for any reason, the building or structure, or any portion thereof, is manifestly unsafe for the purpose for which it is being used;

(9) Whenever the exterior walls or other vertica structural members list, lean, or buckle to such an extent that the structure falls within the condition described in the preceding subparagraph (2), above, or whenever any portion thereof suffers a material reduction of the fire and weather resistance qualities of characteristics required by this Code for newly constructed buildings of like area, height, and occupancy in the same location;

(10) Whenever a building or structure, used or intended to be used for dwelling purposes, because of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, decay, damage, faulty construction or arrangement, inadequate light, air, or sanitation facilities, or otherwise, is found to be unsanitary, unfit for human habitation, or in such a condition that is likely to cause sickness or disease;

(11) Whenever any building or structure, because of obsolescence, dilapidated, condition, deterioration, damage, inadequate exists, lack of sufficient fire-resistive construction, or other cause, is found to be a fire hazard;

(12) Whenever any portion of a building or structure remains on a site after demolition or destruction of the building or structure is abandoned for a period in excess of six months, so as to constitute a nuisance or hazard to the public;

(13) Whenever any building or structure is in such a condition as to constitute a public nuisance defined in Article 694 and 695 of the Civil Code of the Philippines.

(c) Abatement of Dangerous Buildings. In all cases of dangerous buildings, except those covered by Article 482 and 694 to 707 of the Civil Code of the Philippines, the Building Official shall order their repair, vacation, or demolition in accordance with the following procedure:

(1) Where the dangerous building can reasonably be repaired such that it will no longer be dangerous, it shall be ordered repaired;

(2) Where the dangerous building is such that to repair it would cost more than 50 per cent of the current to replacement cost of the building, it shall be repaired or demolished at the opinion of the owner;

(3) Where the dangerous building poses an immediate threat to life, limb, or property, it shall be vacated immediately, then repaired or demolished in accordance with subparagraphs (1) or (2) herein.
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 1:44 am

SECTION 1.01.09. Alternate or new Design, Material, Method of Construction, or Workmanship; Tests

(a) Any design, material, method of construction, or workmanship not specifically included in this Code may be used: Provided, That such alternate or new design, material, method of construction, or workmanship is at least the equivalent of those prescribed in this Code in effectiveness.

(b) Tests for design, materials, method of construction, or workmanship shall be prescribed by the Secretary of Public Works and Communication in appropriate rules and regulations therefor.


SECTION 1.01.10: Municipal and Provincial Ordinances and Regulations

(a) Local ordinances should conform to the Code and suppletory requirements hereto shall in no case diminish minimum requirements embodied in this Code. The Secretary of Public Works and Communications or, in the proper case, the Secretary of Justice shall take any and all appropriate steps in cases where local ordinances conflict with the Code.

SECTION 1.01.11: Definitions and Tables

(a) The definitions in Annex A and the Tables in Annex B of this Code are hereby adopted as part thereof.

SECTION 1.01.12: Separability Clause

(a) If, for any reason, any section or provision of this Code shall be declared unconstitutional or invalid, no other section or provision of this Code shall be affected thereby.

SECTION 1.01.13: Repealing Clause

(a) Any and all statutes, orders, ordinances, rules and regulations or parts thereof, inconsistent with the provisions of this Code, are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.

SECTION 1.01.14: Effectivity

(a) This Code shall take effect upon its approval within the Greater Manila Metropolitan Area and in other areas where there are already existing local building codes, and four (4) years thereafter, in all other areas in the Philippines: Provided, however, That this provision shall not prevent any city or municipal council or board from adopting this Code immediately upon its approval.

Chapter 1.02 - ENFORCEMENT

SECTION 1.02.01: Joint Building and Environmental Planning Research and Standards Commission

(a) Membership. There is hereby created a Joint Building and Environmental Planning Research and Standards Commission composed of two Senators, two Congressmen, and five other members to be appointed by the President of the Philippines. The members shall elect a Chairman from among themselves.

(1) The President of the Senate shall designate the chairman of the Committee on Housing, Urban Development and Resettlement and one Senator from the minority party as members of the Commission.

(2) The Speaker of the House of Representatives shall designate the Chairman of the Committee on Housing and one Congressman from the minority party as members of the Commission.

(3) The President of the Philippines shall appoint two architects, two engineers, and one building contractor chosen from those officially recommended by their respective national professional organizations, to serve for four years or until their successors shall have been duly appointed and qualified.

(4) The members thereof shall serve without compensation: except, That the members from the professional organizations may receive a per diem of one hundred pesos (P100.00) each per meeting actually attended: Provided, That the total per diem the members may receive shall not exceed six hundred pesos (P600.00) per month. A monthly transportation allowance of two hundred fifty pesos (P250.00) shall be granted each of the members from the professional organizations.

(b) Duties and Responsibilities. The Commission shall have the following duties and responsibilities:

(1) Conduct or cause to be conducted continuing research and studies on building, housing, and environmental planning standards and requirements to safeguard life or limb, health, property, and public welfare;

(2) Prepare a draft of a uniform code of criteria, standards, and detailed specifications covering design, construction, and other related matters suited to local needs and indigenous conditions for adoption by local governments to supplement the minimum standards provided in this Code;

(3) Pre pare drafts of environmental planning, management and control codes, subdivision policies and standards, zoning regulations and other codes for legislative enactment; and recommend, from time to time, changes in this Building Code for submission to Congress; and

(4) Transmit appropriate recommendation to the Secretary of Public Works and Communications as a basis for the promulgation by the Secretary of the necessary rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this Code.

(c) Technical Staff. The Commission shall be assisted by a Technical Staff which shall be headed by an Executive Director and an Assistant Executive Director. All personnel shall be appointed by the Chairman subject to civil service laws, rules, and regulations.

(d) Appropriations. The amount of two hundred and fifty thousand pesos (P250,000) or such amount thereof as may be necessary for the operation of the Commission is hereby authorized to be appropriated out of any funds not otherwise appropriated for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973. Such sums may be necessary for the operating expenses of the Commission in succeeding fiscal years shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act.

SECTION 1.02.02: Secretary of Public Works and Communications and Building Officials

(a) The Secretary of Public Works and Communications, hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary", shall promulgate such rules and regulations necessary to enable the Building Official to enforce the provisions of this Code.

(b) In municipalities, the Municipal Engineer shall be the Building Official; Provided, That when there is no such Municipal Engineer, or a duly licensed engineer performing the duties of a Municipal Engineer, or a Land and Building Official, the Provincial Engineer, or in the absence thereof, the Public Works Engineer within whose jurisdiction the municipality falls shall be the Building Official. In case of cities, the City Public Works Supervisor shall be the Building Official: Provided, That when there is no such City Public Works Supervisor, the City Engineer shall be the Building Official. For the purpose of the enforcement of the provisions of this Code, the Building Official shall be under the supervision of the Secretary of Public Works and Communications, any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding.

(c) Subject to the approval of the Municipal Mayor, City Mayor, or Provincial Governor in the proper case, and other civil service laws and rules, the Building Official may appoint such number of officers, inspectors, assistants, or other employees possessing the necessary qualifications and competency as may be authorized by the Municipal Council, City Council, or Provincial Board, as the case may be. He may deputize such technically qualified employees as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Code. For purposes of this Subsection, the terms "necessary qualifications and competency" and "technically qualified" shall mean that the person to be deputized shall have passed the highest grade of examination called for in the applicable law regulating the practice of the branch of engineering or architecture related to or associated with the duties and powers which the person to be deputized shall assume.
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 3:13 am

Stryker wrote:sir laki tulong neto a... malapit n exam ! salamat s pag share...! 2thumbsup
God Bless sa exam nyo sir!painom kayo ha! inuman na
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by bokkins on Fri May 29, 2009 5:06 am

Astig to bro. Thanks for sharing Jenaro! Smile 2thumbsup
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 5:41 am

SECTION 1.02.03: Building permits

(a) Any person, firm, or corporation, including any department, office, bureau, agency of instrumentality of the government intending to construct, alter, repair, move, convert or demolish any building or structure, or cause the same to be done, shall obtain a building permit from the Building Official for whichever of such work is proposed to be undertaken for the building or structure, before any such work is started.

(b) Appropriate rules and regulations shall be set by the Secretary concerning:

(1) Forms for application for building permits;
(2) Procedures to be observed in securing such permits;
(3) Procedures to be observed in the issuance, suspension, and revocation of such building permits; and
(4) Type, nature, and scope of plans and specifications, and other requisite documents, which shall be prepared and designed by a licensed architect or engineer.

(c) When authorized by the Building Official in accordance with the provisions of this Code, plans and specifications need not be submitted for the following:

(1) Group A traditional indigenous type of dwelling construction costing not more than three thousand pesos (P3,000.00); and
(2) Group J Division 1 Occupancy of Type 1 conventional wood frame construction or of the traditional indigenous type of construction costing not more than three thousand pesos (P3,000.00).

(d) The applicant for a building permit for private buildings or structures after having complied with all the requirements prescribed therefor in accordance with the provisions of this Code, shall be issued a building permit within fifteen (15) days from the date of payment of the permit fee for Groups A and J Occupancies and within thirty (30) days from the date of payment of the permit fee for other Group Occupancies, unless the Building Official or his Deputy authorized to issue the permit shall inform the applicant in writing why the permit should not be issued, and shall indicate thereon the particular provisions of the Code violated by the applicant or the particular requirements not complied with. Within fifteen (15) days from the date of receipt by the applicant of advice from the Building Official or his Deputy authorized to issue the permit why the building permit should not be issued, or why the building permit is suspended or revoked, the applicant may appeal the non-issuance, suspension, or revocation thereof, to the Mayor of the chartered city or municipality, or the Governor of the province where the building or structure for which the permit is being applied for is located. Said appeal shall be decided within fifteen (15) days from receipt thereof, otherwise, the applicant may bring the matter to the proper Court of Justice for final disposition.

(e) All public buildings shall conform to the provisions of this Code and the Building Official of the city or province where the public building is located shall issue the building permit therefor, stating in writing that such public building conforms to the requirements of the Code. For national public buildings, the Secretary of Public Works and Communications shall issue a certification that such a building conforms to the Code. Public buildings shall be exempt from payment of building permit, inspection, another fees.

SECTION 1.02.04: Fees

(a) Regulations on building permit, inspection and other fees, and for compliance with the same shall be covered by city and municipal ordinances: Provided, That Traditional indigenous family dwellings under Section 1.01.04 (d) shall be exempt from payment of building permit fees.

SECTION 1.02.05: Inspection ad Certificates of Occupancy

(a) Inspection. The duly licensed architect or engineer engaged by the owner to undertake inspection and detailed supervision of the construction shall periodically certify that the construction conforms to the plans and specifications submitted in the application for a building permit. Upon submission of such periodic certifications during the progress of construction, the Building Official shall periodically issue the required authority to continue with the subsequent phases of construction, without prejudice to his right to conduct on his own initiative any inspection of the said construction. Upon completion of the construction, the said duly licensed architect or engineer shall submit to the Building Official the final certification that the building conforms to the provisions of the Code and with the detailed plans and specifications submitted.

(b) Certificates of Occupancy. The proper Certificate of Occupancy shall be issued to the applicant within seven (7) days from completion of the requirements for inspection and occupancy and payment of any and all fees therefor, unless the building Official or his Deputy issuing the Certificate shall show cause in writing why the Certificate should not be issued and shall indicate thereon the particular provisions of the Code violated or the particular requirements not complied with. Within fifteen (15) days from receipt by the applicant of the advice from Building Official or his Deputy authorized to issue the certificate why the certificate should not be issued, or why the certificate is suspended or revoked, the applicant may appeal the non-issuance, suspension, or revocation thereof, to the Mayor of the chartered city or municipality, or the Governor of the province where the building for which the certificate is being applied for is located. Said appeal shall be decided within fifteen (15) days from receipts thereof, otherwise, the applicant may bring the matter to the proper Court of Justice for final disposition. The building may be occupied only upon issuance of the Certificate of Occupancy.

SECTION 1.02.06: Violations of This Code Covering Designs, Materials, Methods of Construction, and Workmanship

(a) In all cases of violation of this Code covering design, materials, methods of construction, and workmanship, the Building Official shall observe the following procedure in ordering the alteration to conform to this Code or demolition of the building or portion thereof:

(1) Where the building is in the process of construction, the construction of the portion or portions in violation of this Code shall be stopped until the same shall have been altered to conform to this Code, unless such partial violation will impair the stability and safety of the whole or part of the structure, in which case, the whole construction shall be stopped.

(2) Where a building or portion thereof has been constructed, the following procedure shall be observed:
(2.1) In case it can be reasonably altered to conform to the requirements of this Code, it shall be altered accordingly;

(2.2) In case the lateration will cost more than 50 per cent of the current construction cost of the building, it shall be altered to conform to this Code or demolished at the option of the owner;

(2.3) In case the building or portion thereof poses an immediate danger to life, limb, or property, the same shall be vacated immediately, then altered to conform to the requirements of this Code or demolished in accordance with subparagraphs (1) and (2) herein.
(3) If the owner, after receipts of the order of alteration or demolition fails to comply with such order within a period of one year, said construction shall be declared a nuisance and be abated in accordance with the provisions of Article 699 of the Civil Code of the Philippines.

(b) This Code shall not be construed to deprive any person the right to avail himself of any and all judicial proceedings or remedies available under existing laws.

(c) Nothing in this Chapter is intended to diminish the powers vested in the different Boards of Examiners of the various architectural and engineering professions as provided for in existence laws regulating the practice of architecture and engineering, nor to restrict the designing engineering or architect in the exercise of his professional discretion within the basic minimum standards and requirements embodied in Section 1.01.02 of this Code.
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 5:42 am

TITLE 2 - FIRE AND FIRE-RESISTIVE STANDARDS
Chapter 2.01 - REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE ZONES

SECTION 2.01.01: General

(a) Fire Zones Defined. Fire zones are areas within which only certain types of building are permitted to be constructed based on their use, occupancy, type of construction, and resistance to fire.

(b) Building Located in More Than One Fire Zone. If a building or structure is located in more than one fire zone and more than one-third of its total floor area is in a more restricted fire zone, then the entire building shall conform to the requirements for the more restricted area.

(c) Moved Building. Any building or structure moved within or into any fire zone shall be made to comply with all the requirements for buildings of that fire zone.

(d) Temporary Buildings. Temporary buildings or structures conforming to the requirements of this Code, used for the protection of the public around and in conjunction with construction work may be erected in any of the fire zones: Provided, that such work is allowed by special permit from the Building Official and such is used only for a limited period of time.

(e) Center Lines of Streets. For the purpose of this Chapter, the center line of an adjoining street or alley may be considered an adjacent property line. Distance shall be measured at right angles to the street or alley.

SECTION 2.01.02. Designation of Fire Zones

(a) The Secretary shall classify each type of fire zone in accordance to use, occupancy, type of construction, and resistance to fire subject to the provisions of this Code.

(b) Based on the classification of fire zones, City Counsels or Municipal Boards, by resolution, shall divide cities and municipalities into fire zones. Such division shall be in accordance with the local physical and spatial framework plans or the recommendation of the local city or municipal development body.

Chapter 2.02 - FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS FOR FIRE PROTECTION

SECTION 2.02.01: Fire-Resistive Requirements

(a) Exterior bearing and nonbearing walls of Types II and III constructions shall have one-hour fire-resistive rating; while those of types IV and V shall have four-hour fire-resistive rating.

(b) Interior bearing walls, permanent partitions, floors, and roofs of Types II to IV constructions shall have one-hour fire-resistive rating; while those of Type V shall have three-hour fire-resistive rating for walls, one-hour fire-resistive rating for partitions, and two-hour fire-resistive rating for vertical openings, floors, and roofs.

(c) Structural frames of Types II and III constructions shall have one-hour fire-resistive rating; those of Type IV shall have two-hour fire-resistive rating; and those of Type V shall have three-hour fire-resistive rating.

(d) Exterior doors and windows shall have three-fourths-hour fire-resistive rating for all types of construction.



SECTION 2.02.02: Fire-Resistive Standards

(a) General. Materials and systems of fire-resistive purposes shall be classified according to their fire-resistive ratings as determined by internationally accepted testing methods, subject to the provisions of this Section.

(b) One-Hour Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating

(1) The following walls and partitions shall have a one-hour fire-resistive rating: Solid masonry, 10 centimeters (4 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 15 centimeters (6 inches) thick; solid concrete, 10 centimeters (4 inches) thick; stud walls covered on each side with 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) lath and plaster, 1.6 centimeters (5/8 inch) of vermiculite gypsum board, or 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of gypsum board; and 5 centimeters (2 inches) nominal thickness tongue and groove wood, or two layers of 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) tongue and groove wood separated by sheet metal or asbestos paper and treated on each side with a fire-retardant coating having a flame-spread rating of 50 or less. Square-edged boards may be used is the layers are laid at right angles with each other.

(2) The following floors shall have a one-hour fire-resistive rating: masonry or concrete, 10 centimeters (4 inches) thick; wood joists having two layers of flooring above and a plaster or gypsum board ceiling, 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) in thickness - the two layers of flooring shall be separated by sheet metal or asbestos building paper; 6.3 centimeters (2-1/2 inches) net thickness tongue and grooved wood floors covered with 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) wood flooring laid at right angles thereto. The supporting beams for such floors shall be not less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) in minimum dimension.

(3) The following protections for metal structural members shall have one-hour fire-resistive rating: 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of concrete; 3.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) of masonry; and metal lath and 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of plaster.

(4) The following shall also have a one-hour fire-resistive rating; wood colums, 20 centimeters (8 inches) or more in least dimension; and wood beams, 15 centimeters (6 inches) or more in least dimension.

(c) Two-Hour Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating

(1) The following partitions, walls, and floors shall have a two-hour fire-resistive rating: solid masonry, 15 centimeters (6 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick; and solid concrete, 127 centimeters (5 inches) thick.

(2) The following protections for metal structural members shall have a two-hour fire-resistive rating. 3.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) of concrete; 5 centimeters (2 inches) of masonry; and two layers of metal lath and plaster with 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) air space between and having a total thickness of 6.3 centimeters (2-1/2 inches).

(d) Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating

(1) The following partitions, walls, and floors shall have a three-hour fire-resistive rating: solid masonry, 17.8 centimeters (7 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 25.4 centimeters (10 inches) thick; and solid concrete, 15 centimeters (6 inches) thick.

(2) The following protection for metal structural members shall have a three-hour fire resistive rating: centimeters (2 inches) of concrete; 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) of masonry.



(e) Four-Hour Fire-Resistive Time Period Rating

(1) The following partitions, walls, and floors shall have a four-hour fire resistive rating: solic masonry walls, 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 30 centimeters (12 inches) thick; and solid concrete, 17.8 centimeters (7 inches) thick.

(f) Steel Joists. Steel joist floors shall have from one to four-hour fire-resistive rating based on internationally accepted standards of engineering.

(g) Flame-Proof Materials. Materials required to be flame-proofed shall be treated with a flame-retardant having flame-spread rating of 50 less as determined by the "Tunnel Test".

SECTION 2.02.03: Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish

(a) General. Finishes for interior walls and ceilings of any building shall be classified according to their flame-spread characteristics using the internationally accepted "Tunnel Test" or other equivalent test for fire protection. The class of materials according to flame-spread characteristics shall be determined for each occupancy group. The smoke density shall not be greater than that obtain from the burning of untreated wood under similar conditions when tested in accordance with the "Tunnel Test" in the way intended for use. The products of combustion shall be no more toxic than the burning of untreated wood under similar conditions.

(b) Interior Finish Materials. Interior walls and ceiling finish shall mean interior wainscoting, paneling, or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation or similar purposes. Requirements for finishes shall not apply to trim, doors, and windows or their frames, nor to materials which are less than one millimeter (0.039 inch) in thickness cemented to an incombustible backing. Interior finish materials applied to walls and ceilings shall be tested as specified herein and regulated for purposes of limiting flame-spread.

SECTION 2.02.04: Promulgation of Fire-Resistive Regulations

(a) The Secretary shall promulgate appropriate standards and regulations on the testing of materials for flame-spread characteristics; application of controlled interior finish; finishes based on occupancy; materials and tests on fire dampers, fire tests of building construction and materials, fire tests of door assemblies, tin-clad fire doors, fire test of window assemblies, installation of fire door and fire windows, and smoke and fire detectors for fire protective signaling systems; fire-resistive protection of structural members; fire-resistive walls and partitions; fire-resistive floor-ceilings or roof-ceilings; fire-resistive assemblies for protection of openings; and fire-retardant roof coverings.
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 5:46 am

TITLE 3 - REQUIREMENTS BASED ON OCCUPANCY
Chapter 3.01 - CLASSIFICATION OF ALL BUILDINGS BY
USE OR OCCUPANCY AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
FOR ALL OCCUPANCIES

SECTION 3.01.01: Occupancy Classified

(a) Building proposed, for construction shall be identified according to its use or the character of its occupancy and shall be classified as follows:

(1) Group A - Residential: Dwellings. Group A Occupancies shall include dwellings.

(2) Group B - Residential: Hotels and Apartments. - Group B Occupancies shall include boarding or lodging houses, hotels, apartment houses, convents, and monasteries (each accomodating more than 10 persons).

(3) Group C - Education and Recreation. Group C Occupancies shall be any building used for school or day care purposes more than eight hours per week, involving assemblage for instruction, education, or recreation, and not classed in Group I or in Divisions 1 and 2 of Group H Occupancies.

(4) Group D - Institutional. Group D Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Mental hospitals, mental sanitariums, jails, prisons, reformatories, and buildings where personal liberties of inmates are similarly restrained; Division 2 - Nurseries for full-time care of children under kindergarten age, hospitals, sanitariums, nursing homes with non-ambulatory patients, and similar buildings (each accommodating more than five persons); Division 3 - Nursing homes for ambulatory patients, homes for children of kindergarten age or over (each accommodating more than five persons); Provided, That Group D Occupancies shall not include buildings used only for private residential purposes or for a family group.

(5) Group E - Business and Mercantile. Group E Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Gasoline filling and service stations; storage garage and boat storage structures where no work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids; Division 2 - Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load test than 100, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using materials not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales room for combustible goods, and paint stores without bulk handling, and Division 3 -Aircraft hangars where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids; open parking garages and heliports.

(6) Group F - Industrial. Group F Occupancies shall include: Ice plants, power plants, pumping plants, cold storage, and creameries; factories and workshops using incombustible and non-explosive materials; and storage and sales rooms of incombustible and non-explosive materials.

(7) Group G - Storage and Hazardous. Group G Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Storage and handling of hazardous and highly flammable or explosive materials other than flammable liquids; Division 2 - Storage and handling of flammable liquids; dry cleaning plants using flammable liquids; paint stores with bulk handling; paint shops and spray painting rooms, and shops; Division 3 - Wood working establishments, planning mills and box factories, shops factories where loose, combustible fibers or dust are manufactured, processed or generated; warehouses where highly combustible material is stored; Division 4 - Repair garages; and Division 5 - Aircraft repair hangars.

(8) Group H - Assembly Other Than Group I. Group H Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Any assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of less than 100 in the building; Division 2 - Any assembly building without a stage and having an occupant load of 300 or more in the building; Division 3 - Any assembly building without a stage and having an occupant load of less than 300 in the building, including such buildings used for school purposes less than eight hours per week; and Division 4 - Stadiums, reviewing stands, amusement park structures not included within Group I or Divisions 1, 2, and 3, Group H Occupancies.

(9) Group I - Assembly Occupant Load 1000 or More. Group I Occupancies shall be any assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of 1000 or more in the building.

(10) Group J - Accessory. Group J Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Private garages, carports, sheds, and agricultural buildings; Division 2 - Fences over 1.80 meters (6 feet) high, tanks, and towers.

(b) Other subgroupings or divisions within Groups A to J may be determined by the Secretary. Any other occupancy not mentioned specifically in this Section, or about which there is any question, shall be included in the Group which its use most nearly resembles based on the existing or proposed life and fire hazard.

(c) The Building Officials shall identify and indicate in the Certificate of Occupancy the appropriate classification to which a building or structure to be constructed belongs.

SECTION 3.01.02: Change in Use

(a) No change shall be made in the character of occupancies or use of any building which would place the building in a different division of the same group of occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless such buildings is made to comply with the requirements for such division or group of occupancy: Except, That the character of occupancy of existing buildings may be changed subject to the approval of the Building Official and the building may be occupied for purposes set forth in other Groups without conforming to all the requirements for those Groups, provided the new or proposed use is less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing use.

SECTION 3.01.03: Mixed Occupancy

(a) General. When a building is used for more than one occupancy purposes, each part of the building comprising a distinct "Occupancy" shall be separated from any other occupancy. When a building is used for more than one occupancy purpose, it shall be subject to the most restrictive requirements for the occupancies concerned: Except, - (1) When a one-story building houses more than one occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the requirements for the occupancy housed therein, and the area of the building shall be such that the sum of the actual areas divided by the allowable area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed one; and (2) Where minor accessory uses do not occupy more than 10 per cent of the area of any floor of a building, nor more than 10 per cent of the basis are permitted in the occupancy requirements. The major use of the building shall determine the occupancy classification provided the uses are separated in accordance with requirements for occupancy separation.

(b) Forms of Occupancy Separation. Occupancy separations shall be vertical or horizontal or both, or when necessary, of such other form as may be required to afford a complete separation between the various occupancy divisions in the building.

(c) Types of Occupancy Separation. Occupancy separations shall be classed as "One-Hour Fire-Resistive" "Two-Hour Fire-Resistive", "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive", and "Four-Hour Fire-Resistive".

(1) A "One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separations" shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction. All openings in such a separations shall be protected a fire assembly having a one-hour fire-resistive rating.

(2) A "Two-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall be of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction. All openings in such separation shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one and one-half-hour fire-resistive rating.

(3) A "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall be of not less than three-hour fire-resistive construction. All openings in walls forming such separation shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-hour fire-resistive rating. The total width of all openings in any three-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation wall in any one-story shall not exceed 25 per cent of the length of the wall in that story and no single opening shall have an area greater than 10.00 square meters (107.1 square feet). All openings in floors forming a "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall be protected by vertical enclosures extending above and below such openings. The walls of such vertical enclosures shall be of not less than ten-hours fire-resistive construction, and all openings therein shall be protected by a fire assembly having one and one-half-hour fire-resistive rating.

(4) A "Four-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall have no openings therein and shall be of not less than four-hour fire-resistive construction.

(d) Fire Ratings for Occupancy Separation. Occupancy separations shall be provided between various groups, subgroupings, or divisions of occupancies. The Secretary shall promulgate rules and regulations for appropriate occupancy separations in buildings of mixed occupancy: Provided, That where any occupancy separation is required, the minimum shall be a "One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation"; and where the occupancy separation is horizontal, structural members supporting the separation shall be protected by equivalent fire-resistive construction.
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Fri May 29, 2009 5:48 am

SECTION 3.01.04: Location on Property

(a) General. Buildings shall adjoin or have access to a public space, yard, or street on not less than one side. Required yards shall be permanently maintained. For the purpose of this Section, the center line of an adjoining street or alley shall be considered an adjacent property line. Eaves over required windows shall be not less than 75 centimeters (30 inches) from the side and rear and rear property lines.

(b) Fire Resistance of Walls. Exterior walls shall have fire resistance and opening protection in accordance with requirements set by the Secretary. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend beyond a point one-third the distance to the property line from an exterior wall; or a point one-third the distance from an assumed vertical plane located where fire-resistive protection of openings is first required due to location on property, whichever is the least restrictive. Distance shall be measured at right angles from the property line. When openings in exterior walls are required to be protected due to distance from property line, the sum of the area of such openings shall not exceed 50 per cent of the total area of the wall in each story.

(c) Buildings on Same Property and Buildings Containing Courts. For the purpose of determining the required wall and opening protection, buildings on the same property and court walls shall be assumed to have a property line between them. When a new building is to be erected on the same property with an existing building, the assumed property line from the existing building shall be the distance to the property line for each occupancy as set forth by the Secretary: Provided, That two or more buildings on the same property may be considered as portions of one building of the aggregate area of such buildings is within the limits of allowable floor areas for a single building; and that when the buildings so considered house different occupancies or are of different types of construction, the area shall be that allowed for the most restricted occupancy or construction.

SECTION 3.01.05: Allowable Floor Areas

(a) Areas of One-Story Buildings and Building Over One Story. Allowable floor areas for one-story buildings and buildings over one story shall not exceed the limits determined in accordance with occupancy groups and types of construction.

(b) Area Separation Walls. Each portion of a building separated by one or more area separation walls may be considered a separate building provided the area separation wall meet the requirements of this Code.

SECTION 3.01.06: Allowable Area Increases

(a) The floor area hereinabove provided may be increased in certain specific instances and under appropriate conditions, based on the existence of public space, streets, or yards extending along the adjoining two or more sides of the building or structure.

SECTION 3.01.07: Maximum Height of Buildings and Increases

(a) The maximum height and number of stories of every building shall be dependent upon the character of the occupancy and the type of construction, and shall not exceed the limits determined by population density, building bulk, widths of streets, and car parking requirements. The height shall be measured from the highest adjoining sidewalk or ground surface, provided that the height measured from the lowest adjoining surface shall not exceed such maximum height by more than 3.00 meters (10 feet): Except, That towers, spires, and steeples, erected as a part of a building and not used for habitation or storage, are limited as to height only by structural design if completely of incombustible materials, or may extend not to exceed 6.00 meters (19 feet, 8 inches) above the height limits for each occupancy group if of combustible materials.

SECTION 3.01.08: Maximum Requirements for Group A Dwellings: One Two Stories

(a) Dwelling Location and Lot Occupancy. The dwelling shall occupy not more than 90 per cent of a corner lot and 80 per cent of an inside lot, and subject to the provisions on easements of light and view of the Civil Code of the Philippines, shall be at least 2.00 meters (6 feet, inches) from the property line.

(b) Light and Ventilation. Every dwelling shall be so constructed and arranged as to provide adequate light and ventilation.

(1) Habitable rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms and utility rooms shall have a height of not less than 2.40 meters (8 feet), measured from floor to ceiling.

(2) Rooms shall have a minimum size of 6.00 square meters (65 square feet) with a least horizontal dimension of 2.00 meters (6 feet, 7 inches) for rooms of human habitations; 3.00 square meters (32 feet) with a least horizontal dimension of 1.50 meters (5 feet) for kitchens; and 1.20 square meters (13 square feet) with a least horizontal dimension of 90 centimeters (3 feet) for bathrooms.

(3) Windows shall be at least 1/10th of the floor area of the room.

(c) Sanitation. Every dwelling shall be provided with at least one sanitary toilet and adequate washing and drainage facilities.

(d) Foundation. Footing shall be of sufficient size and strength to support the load and dwelling and shall be at least 30 centimeters (1 foot) thick and 60 centimeters (2 feet) below the surface of the ground. Each post shall be anchored to such footings by straps and bolts of adequate size.

(e) Post or Suportales. The dimensions of wooden post or suportales shall be those found in Table 3.01 - A Dimension of Wooden Posts or Suportales (Annex B).

(f) Floor. The live load of the first floor shall be at least 200 kilograms per square meter (40 pounds per square foot) and for the second floor, at least 150 kilograms per square meter (30 pounds per square foot).

(g) Roof. The wind load for roofs shall be at least 150 kilograms per square meter (30 pounds per square foot).

(h) Stairs. Stairs may be 75 centimeters (30 inches) wide, with a rise of 20 centimeters (8 inches) and a run of 23 centimeters (9 inches).

(i) Entrance and Exit. There shall be one entrance and one exit.

(j) Electrical Outlets. There shall be at least one convenience outlet per 6.00 meters (20 feet) of wall measured along the floor and one light outlet for every room.

(k) Mechanical Requirements. Family dwellings not more than two stories shall be exempt from the requirements of the Mechanical Code.

SECTION 3.01.09: Requirements for Group Occupancies

(a) Subject to the provisions of this Code, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations for each occupancy group covering: allowable construction, height, and area; location on property, exit facilities, light, ventilation, and sanitation; enclosure of vertical openings; fire-extinguishing system; and special hazards.
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by callow_arki28 on Sat May 30, 2009 6:19 am

Maraming maraming salamat bro! thumbsup
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by Horhe_sanjose on Tue Jun 02, 2009 6:26 am

tips lang mga bros..... NSCP try niyo magconcentrate sa definition of terms..... i dont know kung nagbago na mga examiners ngayon ha..... kung si Eugene Gan for sure un pa din.... try nyo concentrate diff bet NBC chaka fire code.... Prof Prac try niyo basahin lang ng basahin then sa exam puro practical reasoning lang naman.... third day, try nyo tanong sa mga taga CDEP reviewers kung ano tinake-up nila for drafting classes..... the best review center to, for me ha.... hehehhe..... UST grad ako pero this is run by UP admin....
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by pixelburn on Tue Jun 02, 2009 6:54 am

sabi nila, kasabihan daw ang sikreto sa pagpasa ay yung pag tuck-in daw ng polo shirt,, dapat daw hapit na hapit...... pansin ko kc ung mga girls na nagtuck-in sa harap ko,,, hapit na hapit,,, pumasa din sila eh!!........yun lang naman po ang naobserbahan ko!!!!!
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by Horhe_sanjose on Tue Jun 02, 2009 6:58 am

ako napansin ko secreto sa pagpasa ung pag umulan pagkatapos ng exam, magpapabasa ka.... blessings daw un..... pag hindi umulan..... un lang..... paghindi mo na alam ang sagot babato mo ung eraser.... kung saan nahulog hundredten percent sure un ang sagot..... pustahan tayo
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Tue Jun 02, 2009 6:59 am

pixelburn wrote:sabi nila, kasabihan daw ang sikreto sa pagpasa ay yung pag tuck-in daw ng polo shirt,, dapat daw hapit na hapit...... pansin ko kc ung mga girls na nagtuck-in sa harap ko,,, hapit na hapit,,, pumasa din sila eh!!........yun lang naman po ang naobserbahan ko!!!!!
felix bakat kaw ba yan?nyahahahha...tuck-in talaga para iwas disgrasya...hehehhhe Laughing
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Tue Jun 02, 2009 7:01 am

Horhe_sanjose wrote:ako napansin ko secreto sa pagpasa ung pag umulan pagkatapos ng exam, magpapabasa ka.... blessings daw un..... pag hindi umulan..... un lang..... paghindi mo na alam ang sagot babato mo ung eraser.... kung saan nahulog hundredten percent sure un ang sagot..... pustahan tayo
sa color game pede ito sir,nyahahahhaha...
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by pixelburn on Tue Jun 02, 2009 7:05 am

ako naman po isa din sa naobserbahan ko,, pag nde ko alam ung sagot ko sa 5 na choices, kung saan pumatak ung pawis ko, dun ako sumasagot.... nagkataon naman na tama ang sagot ko,,,,buti na lang nagbrown out nung nag board exam ako, at namatay ang aircon, kung nde ,, nde sana papatak ang pawis ko!!!
.
.

pero anyway kidding aside,, basta intindihin lang ng mabuti ang binabasa,, at for sure marerecall mo yan oras na lumabas ung tanong na yun...sa review center naman isa sa nagpunyagi sakin ang bau haws,,, tank u guys......
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Tue Jun 02, 2009 7:08 am

THEORY OF DESIGN

• Research of Architecture
- Research contributes to Design Theory
• Nature of Design Theory
- Design Theory states facts
- Design Theory aids design
• Scope of Architecture Theory
- Includes all that is presented in the handbooks of architects
- Includes legislation, norms and standards, rules and methods
- Includes miscellaneous and “unscientific” elements
• Why Design Theory?
- To aid the work of the architect and improve its product
- Proven theory helps designers do work better and more efficiently
- “Skill without knowledge is nothing”
(architect Jean Mignot, 1400 AD)
• Understanding Design Theory
- Theory does NOT necessarily mean PRECCED design
- PARADISM : every new or established theory applied
: STYLE

 THEMATIC THEORIES
• CLASSICAL
- Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
• MIDDLE AGES
- Medieval (read: Dark Age) anonymous tradition of trade guilds
• RENAISSANCE
- Alberti, Vignola, Palladio, etc.
• STRUCTURALIST
- Galileo Galilei, Robert Hooke, etc.
• ART NOUVEAU (Personal Style)
- Eugene Emmanuelle Violett-le-Due, Le Corbusier, etc.
• FUNCTIONALISM
- Walter Gropius, Louis Sullivan, etc.
- modern architecture
• POSTMODERNISM
- Robert Venturi
• SYMBOLIC ARCHITECTURE
• ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE

 CLASSICAL THEORIES
• Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
- Author of the oldest research on architecture
- Wrote an extensive summary of all the theory on construction
- Had a thorough knowledge of earlier Greek and Roman writings
• “Ten Books on Architecture”
- De architectura libri decem
- Consists mostly of normative theory of design (based on practice)
- A collection of thematic theories of design with no method of combining them into a synthesis
- Presents a classification of requirements set for buildings:
: DURABILTIY (firmitas)
: PRACTICALITY or “convenience”
(utilitas)
: PLEASANTNESS (venustas)
• Vitruvian Rules of Aesthetic Form
- Based on Greek traditions of architecture
- Teachings of Pythagoras : applying proportions of numbers
- Observations of tuned string of instruments
- Proportions of human body
- PLEASANTNESS : in accordance of good taste
: parts follow proportions
: symmetry of measures

 THEORIES in the MIDDLE AGES
- no documents
- no person can be attributed for theories

• Monastery Institutions
- Most documents retrieved from the Middle Ages
- However, archives contain only few descriptions of buildings
- Described only as “according to the traditional model”
- “There’s no accounting for tastes” was the rule of thumb
• Development of Building Style
- With hardly or no literary research present
- Villard de Hannecourt’s “sketchbook” in 1235
- Rotzer’s Booklet on the right way of making pinnacles
- Only through guidance of old masters
- Tradition binding and precise in close guilds of builders

 RENNAISANCE THEORIES

• 1948 – a copy of Virtue manuscript found at St. Gallen Monastery
• Leon Bautista Alberti (1404-72)
- Person in charge of constructions commanded by Pope
- “On Building” : De re aedifficatoria
: one of the greatest works of the theory of
architecture
: completed in 1452, published in 1485
: more emphasis on decoration of building
exteriors
• Sebastino Serlio
- “Regole generall di architectura”
• Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola
- “Regola delle cinque ordini”
- Concise, facts and easily applicable rules of the five column systems
- Based his design instructions on four things:
: idea of Pythagoras
: proportions of small number
: properties and other instruments
: good taste
• Andrea Palladio (1508-80)
- “I Quattro libri dell’architectura”
- The father of modern picture books of architecture
• Philibert de L’orme
- One of French theorist who are critical of italians
- Prove that Pantheon’s Corinthian columns had 3 different proportions
- Rejected the doctrine of absolute beauty of measures

 CONSTRUCTION THEORY

Building Material Architectural Form
Amorphic material:
Soft stone; snow Spherical vaulted construction
Sheets of skin or textile Cone-shaped tent construction
Logs of wood Box-shaped construction

• Before Written Construction Theory
- Architecture created without the help of architects or theory
- Builders used a model instead of mathematical algorithms now used in modern construction
- Inverted “catenary” model
• Semi-Circular Vault : Theory by Virtue
“ When there are arches… the outermost piers must be made broader than the others so that they may have the strength to resist when the wedges under the pressure of the load of the walls, begins to thrust to the abutments.”
• During Middle Ages
- No written documents survived about theories or models to describe the magnificent vaults of medieval cathedrals
• During Renaissance
- From Alberti onwards, architects began specializing
- Mathematical models by Francis Bacon and Galileo Galilei
: considers load and scientific studies
contributed to constructions
- 1675 : Marquis de Vauban founded a building depatment in the French army called “ Corps des Ingenieurs”
- 1747 : Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees, special school founded in Paris where new profession specializing in construction was organized.
--- first engineering school
- Other figures of mathematical construction theory
: Robert Hooke
: Jakob Bernoulli
: Leonard Euier

 PERSONAL STYLE

• Copying from Antiquity
- Architecture form antiquity came to a print of perfection
- Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1863)
: the first theorist who set out to create a totally new system of architectural forms independent of antiquity

“What we call taste is but an involuntary process of reasoning whose steps elude our observation. Authority has no value if its grounds are not explained.”
: the foundation of modern
architecture
: did not create a timeless architectural style himself, he showed others the philosophical foundation and method that they could use to develop even radically new form language
- Owen Jones : used forms inspired from nature, especially plants

 ART NOUVEAU

- The first architectural style independent of the tradition of antiquity after the Gothic style
- The example set by Art Nouveau encourage some of the most skillful architects of the 20th century to create their private form language

THEORETICAL TREATISES

- Five points of Architecture (1926, Le Corbusier)
a. pilotis
b. free plan
c. free façade
d. the long horizontal sliding window
e. the roof garden
- Architecture as Space (Bruno Zeri)
“The crux of architecture is not the sculptural pattern, but instead the building interiors. These can be seen as “negative solids”, as voids which the artist divides, combines, repeats and emphasizes in the same way as the sculptor treats his “positive” lumps of substance.”
- The “personal style” of architects are not necessarily based on laws of nature or on logical reasoning. More important is that they exhibit a coherent application of an idea which also must be clear that the public can find it out. An advantage is also if the style includes symbolical undertones.


 MODERN ARCHITECTURE
• Industrial Revolution (1768)
- Arts and Crafts Movement
a. conservative
b. William Morris
c. John Rustrin
- Electicism
a. architecture of borrowing
• Fruits of Industrial Revolution
Joseph Paxton – Crystal Palace, 1851
Elisha Graves Otis – Elevator, 1857
Manufacturing of “Rolled Steel”

1870’s
• The Great Fire of Chicago, 1871
- downtown in Chicago was burned and in needs of construction of new buildings
- place where first tallest building was constructed
• William Le Baron Jenney
- made the first skyscraper
• Daniel Burnham
- “make no little plans, they have no magic to stir man’s blood”
• Louis Sullivan
- “form follows function”

1880’s
- Chicago School became the concentration of architectural development
- introduce Chicago Window

1890’s
• The World Columbian Exposition
- built in 1863
- chief architect: Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted


1900’s
- European architecture was notified
- Person to notify:
a. Otto Wagner
b. Adolf Loops “ornament is a crime”
c. H.P. Berlage
d. Frank Llyod Wright
1910’s
- Office of Peter Behrens
a. Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe “less in more”
b. Walter Gropius
c. Le Corbusier
- 2 Art movements that influenced
1. Futurism – simultaneity of movement
2. Cubism – interpretation of space
1920’s
• The Bauhaus
- “Art and Technology, the new unity”
• Established architects
a. Frank Llyod Wright “organic architecture”
b. Le Corbusier
c. Mies Van Der Rohe / Gropius
1930’s
• International Style

1950’s
• The period of Reassessment
- Universalism
- Personalism

 POSTMODERNISM
• The center of Postmodernism:
Robert Venturi “less is bore”
• Philip Johnson
- say that a portion of Chippendale building in New York has no function
• Introduce the element of “Discovery”

 SYMBOLIC ARHITECTURE
- “Building as a message”

1. Mathematical Analogy
2. Biological Analogy
- use of plants and ornaments
3. Romantic Architecture
- uses exotic language of form
- vastness; trying to surprise; huge
4. Linguistic Analogies
- grammar; uses words with proper grammar
5. Mechanical Analogies
- Buckminter Fuller
6. Ad Hoc Analogy
- any materials that you can get or available in your environment such as wood in forest
7. Stage Analogy
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by AUSTRIA on Tue Jun 02, 2009 7:09 am

Gusto ko Design....wala ba sir? lol!

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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by Horhe_sanjose on Tue Jun 02, 2009 7:30 am

AUSTRIA wrote:Gusto ko Design....wala ba sir? lol!

pards kung may kilala ka na sa CDEP nag review tanong ka sa kaniya kung ano mga tinake nila sa drafting classes nila..... run by Architect Espina ung review center, dean siya ng UP..... galing ng mga design probs nila.... baka tsempo un ang lumabas.... hindi ko inaassure sayo na eksakto kase wala rin naman nakakaalam kung ano talaga lalabas eh..... hint ko lang sayo is, basahin mo mabuti ung design problem, and may catch question un..... pag hindi mo na solve un yari ka..... kaya kelangan basahin mabuti.... 3 times mo ulitin before you procede.....
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by AUSTRIA on Tue Jun 02, 2009 7:44 am

Sir Horhe, sorry po tapos na me mag take ng board year 2002 pa hehehehe...nag ask lang ako kay sir jenaro kung meron design kasi mas mahalaga yun at malaki percentage nun para ka pumasa.... kasi naalala ko po kasi di ako pumasa ng first and second day but i did it for my Design kaya ako pumasa pa rin.... Very Happy

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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by jenaro on Tue Jun 02, 2009 7:58 am

AUSTRIA wrote:Sir Horhe, sorry po tapos na me mag take ng board year 2002 pa hehehehe...nag ask lang ako kay sir jenaro kung meron design kasi mas mahalaga yun at malaki percentage nun para ka pumasa.... kasi naalala ko po kasi di ako pumasa ng first and second day but i did it for my Design kaya ako pumasa pa rin.... Very Happy
naks naman!sir pareho pala tayo!nyahahahhaha...designs(3rd day)ako pumasa...nyahahahahhaha,secreto lang naten ito sir ha!nyahahahhaha,pero kahit malaki percentage nung design dapat lahat pagigihan para sure ball...ang dami nga nagulat at ngtaas ng kilay nung pumasa ako...pano di ako gumagawa ng mga plates at wala akong pinapasang exam sa review center...ni mgdrawing ng design di ko ginawa sa utak lang ako gumagawa,nyahahahhahah...pano tuwing gumagawa ako ng design walang nakakaapreciate,huhuhuhuhu...buti na lng ung mga board ngets nila ung design ko...
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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

Post by AUSTRIA on Tue Jun 02, 2009 8:53 am

Well actually I did my best...kahit first and second day pinagbutihan ko talaga, pero nagmadali ako na makatapos kasi pare parehas
ang sagot...halos lahat tama...nakakainis Sad ...kaya na frustrate ako plano ko na nga di ituloy sa third day eh..Buti na lang nag trip ako sabi ko sa sarili ko ito na yung chance na i design ko ang gusto ko na syempre tama naman at patunayan sa board member na karapat dapat akong Architekto...and thanks God it works Laughing ....no need to mention na lang ang grade malapit na sa 100... (di naman po sa pagmamayabang)for the sake na ma inspire naman dito ang mag take ng exam....Guys number one ang Prayer (if you need my help kung papaano ko nagawa ang design ko ng mataas just PM na lang and I will help you dun sa mag exam sa June) God bless you..... Wink

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Re: Architectural Board Exam Reviewer

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